441540 Occupant Vulnerability for Temporary Blast Resistant Modular Buildings

Monday, April 11, 2016
Exhibit Hall E (George R. Brown )
Ali Sari, Umid Azimov and Hieu Nguyen, Genesis, Houston, TX

Human fatality and injury in the process facility due to overpressure effects can be categorized as (a) direct injury to body due to pressure change, (b) secondary injury resulting from fragment or debris impact, and (c) tertiary injury as a result of body being thrown by explosion drag on stationary objects. Secondary and tertiary effects are typically the dominant causes of fatalities in the process facilities. Direct injuries may result from change in internal pressure as a result of wall/roof response or penetration of blast overpressure into the building. Existing studies allow for an estimation of occupant vulnerability to blast on typical default building construction types. There exists no such building occupant vulnerability calculation method for modular buildings. This paper seeks to develop an improved understanding of the impact of blast loads on modular building and a more comprehensive understanding of the vulnerability to personnel who are within this type of building if they are subjected to a blast load. The study will be carried out in analytical basis which will include basic and advanced numerical methods along with engineering judgment and accident investigation for estimation of vulnerability. A numerical model can include deformable crash test dummies as well as many types of non-structural components in order to estimate occupant vulnerability and maximum individual risk. The outcome of this study will include new response criterion limits related occupant vulnerability in modular buildings as well as design and retrofit guidelines for critical non-structural components.

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