397997 Influence of Overpressure in Pressure Vacuum Safety Valves on Emission Reduction and Explosion Risk Minimization of Atmospheric Storage Tanks

Monday, April 27, 2015: 1:30 PM
Ballroom F (Austin Convention Center)
Dr.-Ing. Davide Moncalvo1, Dr.-Ing. Michael Davies1, Matthew Barfield2 and Chris Mason2, (1)PROTEGO, Braunschweig, Germany, (2)PROTEGO USA, Charleston, SC

In today's economically competitive environment it is important to utilize a venting technology on storage tanks which provides the maximum degree of safety
of the protected item and personnel coupled with minimum product losses and explosion risk. On atmospheric vessels best practice in venting foresees the
installation of a correctly sized Pressure Vacuum Safety Valve (PVSV) with a low set pressure tolerance. A low set pressure tolerance is the capability of
the disk to remain seated when the inlet pressure approaches closely the set pressure. Furthermore, especially when the released medium is unrecoverable or
lost, it is recommendable to reach full opening with minimum overpressure, that is minimum pressure increment above the set pressure.

This paper compares different venting technologies on both seat tightness and product loss with the overpressure ranging from 10 %, as usually required for
safety relief valves (SRV) on pressurized tanks, to 100 %, which is the common technology for PVSV on the market. Product losses are calculated using new
equations derived from the German Standard VDI 3479 [1] and validated with an intense in situ testing at our TÜV certified test facility at the outskirts of
Braunschweig, Germany. The experimental testing confirms that gaseous emissions can be minimized during PVSV opening by using the 10% overpressure
technology, as derived by the theoretical equations and that seat tightness does not suffer from minimizing the overpressure requirements. Furthermore, by
minimizing the overpressure requirement higher set pressures can be imposed and the opening cycles can be shortened. In addition the product losses
during a complete opening and closing single cycle were investigated in the same range of overpressures and here again the 10 % technology presented the best
results, e. g. minimum product loss and shorten opening cycle.

For what regards the set pressure tolerance API 2000 5th Edition [2] suggests that leakage tests should be done at an inlet pressure equal to 75% of the (gauge) set pressure. In addition, it is stated there that weight loaded vents have a 0% blow down. Both statements are not correct and the blow down statement was corrected in the API 2000 6th Edition [3] and preserved in the 7th Edition [4]. Nevertheless, there are today a lot of operating venting systems designed using API 2000 5th Edition [2] presenting high product losses in potentially explosive atmospheres. This paper will pinchpoint also some of these systems and discuss engineering solutions to improve them by minimizing the risk of explosion and reduce the excessive product losses.

[1] VDI 3479 Standard: Emission reduction Marketing installation tank farms (Emissionsminderung Raffinerieferne Mineralöltanklager), 2002.
[2] API 2000 5th Edition: Venting Atmospheric and Low-pressure Storage Tanks, 1998.
[3] API 2000 6th Edition: Venting Atmospheric and Low-pressure Storage Tanks, 2009.
[3] API 2000 7th Edition: Venting Atmospheric and Low-pressure Storage Tanks, 2014.

Extended Abstract: File Uploaded
See more of this Session: Relief Considerations for Low Pressure Storage Tanks
See more of this Group/Topical: Global Congress on Process Safety