471903 3D Chaotic Printing: Using Simple Chaotic Flows to Fabricate Complex Microstructure
In 3D chaotic printing, the interface between the injected material and the fluid matrix grows exponentially with time, and the volume of the injection is finite. Consequently, the average thickness of the lamellae of the material rapidly decreases from a scale of millimeters (the diameter of the injected drop) to one of nanometers. This exponentially fast increase in the interface, as well as the accompanying rapid decrease in the relevant length scales of the microstructure (which still preserves high resolution), is not currently achievable by any other 3D printing technique. We illustrate potential applications for this technology, including the rational reinforcement of constructs by the chaotic alignment of cells and nanoparticles, the fabrication of cell-laden fibers, the development of highly complex multi-lamellar and multi-cellular tissue-like structures for biomedical applications, and the fabrication of bioinspired catalytic surfaces.