467959 Active Fault Detection and Isolation and False Alarm Elimination By Constrained Optimization of Built-in and Maintenance Test Conditions
A general framework is provided for the design of tests for fault detection and isolation, which is based on model-based methods for active fault diagnostics. We present the standard work and corresponding methods to treat fault detection and isolation as a set of constrained optimization problems. We consider the issues of uncertainty caused by system operations and modelling error and address them through the formulation of mathematical problems to minimize their impact on fault detection and isolation capabilities. We improve the identifiability of faults by maximizing the sensitivities of the system outputs with respect to faults and uncertain conditions through the adjustment of input trajectories. This method is based on optimal experimental design methods that improve precision and reduce correlation of estimated model parameters [2,3]. After calculating the optimal test design for fault detection and isolation, we analyze the system at its optimal operating point(s) to assess the identifiability of faults and determine if false alarms can occur using methods of model structural identifiability [4,5]. We show that this analysis is effective at determining if there are fault-free conditions that produce similar outputs to faulty conditions, which could lead to false alarms.
We will present two separate case studies that compare the identifiability of faults at nominal and optimal operating points. In each case study, we examine a virtual system that represents part of a typical aircraft environmental control system. The first case study will focus on a built- in test for a cross-flow plate fin heat exchanger that is prone to particulate fouling. The heat exchanger analysis is based on previous work on fouling identifiability with uncertain operating conditions . We show how the estimation and precise quantification of heat exchanger fouling can be affected by system uncertainty and how false alarms can be eliminated by optimizing the built-in test design. The fouling extent of the nominal and optimal built-in tests is estimated from heat exchanger exit temperature measurements and then these estimates are compared to each other in terms of accuracy and confidence in the estimation. The second case study focuses on the maintenance of a cabin air compressor (CAC) system that has bias in its outlet mass flow sensor (sensor fault). We show how uncertain environmental conditions can cause false alarms when detecting faults in the CAC. We also show that the impact of these conditions can be minimized by adjusting the CAC admissible inputs, making the detection and isolation of sensor faults feasible and reliable during operation.
Acknowledgment:This work was sponsored by the UTC Institute for Advanced Systems Engineering (UTC-IASE) of the University of Connecticut and the United Technologies Corporation. Any opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not represent those of the sponsor. This document does not contain any export controlled technical data.
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