464395 Bubble Shape Hysteresis: The Effect of Compressibility
Experimentally, we observe that, as a result of compressibility, there are two regimes of bubble expansion and contraction. In the first regime, the bubble expands and contracts reversibly, with the bubble retracing the expansion profile obtained during contraction. However, in the second regime, expansion and contraction of the bubble is no longer reversible, thus exhibiting a hysteresis. In this second regime, the bubble undergoes a non-equilibrium jump in size between expansion and contraction.
Theoretically we show that the experimental observations are a consequence of compressibility influencing the equilibrium states of bubbles as a function of two non-dimensional parameters, A and P. A characterizes the relative magnitude of the volume of a hemispherical bubble to the dead volume in the system, and P characterizes the relative magnitude of the maximum capillary pressure to the ambient static pressure. We show that (at a given value of P) for values of A above a critical value, the bubble expands and contracts reversibly as in the first regime seen in our experiments. However for values of A below a critical value, the bubble shapes become hysteretic. Using a phase diagram of A and P, we show the two regimes of bubble formation (with and without hysteresis). Understanding bubble-shape hysteresis and its dependence on compressibility can have important consequences to the design of dilatational interfacial rheology experiments where bubbles are continuously compressed and expanded.
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