455450 Optimization of Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Palm Kernel Shell to Bio-Oil By Response Surface Methodology and Synergistic Effect of Supercritical CO2

Monday, November 14, 2016: 4:19 PM
Yosemite C (Hilton San Francisco Union Square)
Yi Herng Chan1, Suzana Yusup2, Armando Quitain3, Yoshimitsu Uemura4, Mitsuru Sasaki5 and Tetsuya Kida3, (1)Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia, (2)Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Malaysia, (3)Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan, (4)Center for Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia, (5)Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan

The production of bio-oil from palm kernel shell (PKS) via subcritical and supercritical hydrothermal liquefaction was investigated. In order to maximize the bio-oil yield, design of experiment and optimization was performed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Four factors which included temperature (330-390 °C), pressure (25-35 MPa), reaction time (60-120 min) and biomass-to-water ratio (0.20-0.50 wt/wt) were investigated. The regression model developed gave accurate predictions and fitted well with the experimental results, with coefficient of determination R2 of 0.9109. Based on the model, the optimum liquefaction condition was predicted to be at temperature of 390°C, pressure of 25 MPa, reaction time of 60 min and biomass-to-water ratio of 0.20 with a prediction yield of 15.48 wt%. This condition was validated by experimental runs which produced an average of 14.44 wt% bio-oil yield. Then, the synergistic effect of supercritical CO2 on bio-oil yield was studied. Hydrothermal liquefaction of PKS was performed at the optimum condition in the presence of supercritical CO2. The effect of supercritical CO2 was found to be insignificant at liquefaction temperature of 390 °C but it was significant at liquefaction temperature of 300 °C, producing bio-oil yield of 11.35 wt%. GC/MS analysis showed that phenolic compounds constituted the major portion of the bio-oils, while ketones, aromatic compounds and carboxylic acid were also detected.

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