430071 Mechanism of Chemical Doping in Electronic Type Separated Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Towards High Electrical Conductivity

Monday, November 9, 2015: 4:20 PM
253A (Salt Palace Convention Center)
Ivan Puchades1,2, Colleen C. Lawlor1, Christopher M. Schauerman2, Andrew R. Bucossi2, Jamie E. Rossi2, Nathanael D. Cox2 and Brian J. Landi1,2, (1)Department of Chemical Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, (2)NanoPower Research Laboratories, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY

Enhanced electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can enable their implementation in a variety of wire and cable applications traditionally employed by metals. Electronic-type separated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) offer an optimum platform to quantify the unique physiochemical interactions from different chemical dopants and their stability. In this work, a comprehensive study of chemical doping with purified commercial CNT sheets shows that alkali gold halides, gold halides, iodine-based halides and acid solutions are the most effective at increasing the conductivity of CNT films by factors between 3x and 8x. The best performing dopants (i.e. I2, IBr, HSO3Cl (CSA) and KAuBr4) were used to further investigate changes in optical absorption, Raman spectra, and electrical conductivity on type-separated SWCNT thin films. The thin-films were fabricated by dispersing commercially available electronic-type-separated NanoIntegris SWCNT materials in chlorosulphonic acid (CSA), and vacuum filtration on to an AnodiscTM alumina membrane. The thickness of the SWCNT thin-films, which is critical when quantifying electrical conductivity, was rapidly and accurately measured using non-contact optical interferometry. The results indicate that all four dopants enhance the electrical conductivity of semiconducting SWCNT thin-films in a similar manner, increasing from 6-8×104 S/m to 2-4.5×105 S/m (3x to 6x increase) while resulting in quenching of the S11 absorbance peak and a red shift of 8-10 cm-1 of the Raman Gʹ peak, when compared to a purified SWCNT thin-film.  On the other hand, there is a marked difference in how the different dopants interact with metallic SWCNT thin-films. The increase in electrical conductivity of metallic SWCNT thin-films is gradual and depends on the dopant. With an average conductivity value of 9.0×104 S/m for the purified metallic SWCNT thin-films, I2 doping increases the electrical conductivity to 1.0×105 S/m (1.1x increase), IBr to 1.5×104 S/m (1.7x), KAuBr4 to 2.4×105 S/m (2.6x), and CSA to 3.2×105 S/m (3.5x). Although there is no appreciable quenching of the optical absorbance spectra of metallic SWCNT thin-films, shifts of the Raman Gʹ-peak follow with I2 blue shifting by 1 cm-1, and IBr, KAuBr4 and CSA red shifting  by 1cm-1, 4 cm-1, and 7 cm-1, respectively, when compared to a purified control sample. This difference in doping behavior between semiconducting and metallic SWCNT thin films is explained by the redox potential of the doping species and how they compare to the position of the SWCNT metallic and semiconducting transition energies. The results of this work present an improved understanding of the doping mechanism of electronic-type-separated SWCNTs as a function of the redox potential of doping species, and provide a path towards the realization of carbon nanotube based conductors in connectivity applications.

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