Recently, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have found world-wide applications for water treatment and environmental remediation and control of air toxics. Ultrasound and hydrodynamic cavitation alone or in combination with other AOPs such as persulfate and other homogeneous and heterogeneous advanced oxidative species are of particular interests in the research community. These processes offer the potential for shorter reaction cycles, cheaper reagents, and less extreme physical conditions, leading to less expensive and perhaps smaller plants. AOPs have promise to destroy many emerging organic contaminants in water, soil/sediments and air, are being considered in potable water treatment, wastewater treatment, site remediation, and industrial applications. Numerous aqueous emerging organic micropollutants such as perfluorinated surfactants and perfluroalkyl acids (PFAAs), pharmaceuticals, hormones, steroids, antibiotics, personal care products, disinfection by-products, noxious air pollutants, and other emerging pollutants have been studied. Two things are needed for any technology to be suitable for use in the industry: 1. Technical feasibility and 2. Economic feasibility. This paper will provide a state-of-the-art and unified fundamental chemistry and reaction kinetics involved in the emerging advanced oxidation processes, and techniques to estimate energy needs and cost. It will evaluate the performance and economics of ultrasound and hydrodynamic cavitation alone or in combination with other AOPs for pollution remediation, and compare results with conventional technologies. It is intended to advance our fundamental understanding and outline directions for future developments needed to facilitate the move beyond lab-scale to practical and commercial applications.
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