Title: Biological risks from disinfection by-products from chlorination and chloramination of water containing phthalates contaminants
Authors: Hyun Kyung KIM1, Marion NEYRAT2, Tiphaine CORBET3, Liping Li4, King Lun YEUNG 3,4
1 Department of Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China.
2 The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China.
3 Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China.
4 Division of Environment, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China.
Plastic products are ubiquitous and were used in storage and transportation of water in many countries. Plastic water pipes are popular for water distribution due to their low cost and durability. However, presence of plasticizers (i.e., various phthalates), unreacted monomers and solvents in low quality plastic pipes used in less developed countries present a potential, long-term health threat. The two major plasticizers found in PVC are diethyl phthalates and diethylhexyl phthalates of which the effects of chlorinated and chloroaminated water are still not well understood. The low cost, high effectiveness and persistence of chlorine makes it the disinfectant of choice for water, but the reactivity of chlorine can lead to undesired disinfection by-products (DBP) of varying toxicity and bioactivity. These include the well-known carcinogens such as trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. Chloramine is becoming increasing popular in United States, where it is known to produce less disinfection byproducts. The aim of this work is to observe the reactions between the phthalate compounds and disinfected drinking water, and the resulting bioactivity of the water. Water matrix is found to play a significant role in byproduct formation, and the phthalates exposed to chlorine and chloramine although did not showed a significant change in acute toxicity and genotoxicity, it did showed an increased anti-estrogenic activity that could have a long term health implication.
See more of this Group/Topical: Environmental Division