394187 Modeling of Selenium Nanoparticle Deposition for Optimized Production of Antibacterial Surfaces
The Webster Nanomedicine lab designs and explores applications of nanomaterials to inhibit bacterial growth and cancer cell responses. Due to its beneficial effects on the body, and known chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties1, selenium has been used in its nano-form to impart nano-roughness and chemical effects in these experiments. To ensure precise and consistent selenium nanoparticle (SeNP) coverage, we aim to tabulate several relevant aspects of the particle. By adjusting the parameters of the reaction producing SeNP, a variety of data can be collected and analyzed. Characteristics that are pertinent include the nanoparticle size, coverage, surface energy, and roughness. Eventually, a cubic response surface model will be developed using a central composite design (CCD), which will be able to predict the interaction of the particles with bacteria and cells.
SeNP are produced through a reaction of glutathione (GSH) with sodium selenite (Na2SeO3). The reactants are introduced in a 4:1 molar ratio, respectively. Thin discs of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) are added to the reaction, providing a surface for the cells to grow. In order to precipitate out the SeNP, 2M NaOH is added to the mixture. The reaction is then halted by the addition of DiH2O. The experimental design used four factors: time in GSH/ Na2SeO3, time in NaOH, reaction volume, and the number of samples in the volume. Three results are compared: nanoparticle size, nanoparticle coverage, and surface energy of each sample. Both the size and the coverage of the produced nanoparticles can be measured using scanning electron microscopy. The surface roughness is portrayed through atomic force microscopy. Surface energy can be calculated utilizing the contact angle, which is defined using a Goniometer.
Previous studies show longer time increments (in both cases) increase the deposition of SeNP on the substrate. However, as the increments reach larger values of time (30-60 seconds), there is less of a change in coverage. This suggests the existence of a saturation point. On the PLLA, there is a finite number of binding sites for the nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticle, with time being the only deviation, remains consistent. It is predicted that development time and reaction volume directly correlate. Recent observations of previous studies have shown that increased coverage correlates with development time in both steps, and therefore, roughness.
Through characterization of the SeNP product, a cubic response surface will be calculated relating the input parameters to expected results, optimizing the coverage of nanoparticles on substrates. These efforts conserve both time and resources because reactions can be designed with focused specifications.