339418 Dynamic Modeling of a Solid-Sorbent CO2 Capture System
A one-dimensional (1D), two-phase, non-isothermal, dynamic model of a solid sorbent-based CO2 capture system has been developed in Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM). The system consists of a two-stage bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) adsorber-reactor for CO2 capture, a single stage moving bed regenerator for the sorbent regeneration, a multi-stage integral-gear centrifugal compressor system for CO2compression, a pneumatic transport system for solids transport between the adsorber and regenerator, and the balance of the plant. In addition, a heat recovery system has been modeled for the regenerator which includes pre- and post-heat exchangers using steam/boiler feed water as the heating/cooling medium. The solid sorbent is NETL 32D developed at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The system of partial differential algebraic equations (PDAEs) has been generated using conservation equations, hydrodynamics, and reaction kinetics along with the appropriate boundary and initial conditions.
Flue gas from a supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC) plant enters at the bottom of the lower stage adsorber and regenerated sorbent enters the upper stage adsorber. Embedded heat exchangers have been considered for cooling of the bed using water as the cooling medium. The CO2-rich sorbent is pneumatically transported to the regenerator through a pre-heater. An embedded heat exchanger in the regenerator maintains the unit at near-isothermal conditions. The regenerated sorbent passes through a low pressure steam generator that helps to recover heat for improving the overall efficiency. The medium selected for transporting the solid sorbent between the adsorber and regenerator is the one that minimizes the auxiliary power requirement without violating the overall target for CO2 capture. The CO2 rich gas stream from the regenerator is compressed to pipeline pressure by a multi-stage integral-gear compressor. A glycol absorption system is used to satisfy the pipeline specification for water in the CO2stream. For off-design operation of the compressors, surge detection and control algorithms are developed.
The PDAE system with the appropriate boundary conditions is solved in ACM using the well-known method of lines which involves discretization of the spatial domain and dynamic integration of the time domain. The transient responses of various process variables such as CO2 capture, flue gas and sorbent temperatures, and loading of the sorbent are studied by simulating typical disturbances such as change in the flue gas temperature, flowrate, and composition. A lower level control system is designed to maintain the overall CO2 capture at the desired value in the face of such disturbances.