316221 Optimization of CO2 Capture, Utilization and Sequestration (CCUS) Supply Chain Networks
CO2 capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) is an enabling technology toward reducing CO2 emissions from stationary sources which include power plants, cement production plants, iron and steel plants, refineries, petrochemicals and gas processing plants. More than 60% of the total CO2 emissions in the United States are attributed to stationary sources . CCUS connects CO2 sources and utilization/storage sites through three sequential operations: capture, compression, and transportation. CO2 is first captured and compressed at the source plant, and then transported via pipeline to a site where it is utilized or injected for sequestration for geological storage.
It is critical to integrate capture, compression, transportation, utilization and sequestration in an optimal fashion. However, standalone development of CCUS components have made the design of large-scale CCUS networks a complex and challenging task. In this work, we present a mixed-integer optimization (MILP) model for the synthesis of CCUS supply chain networks for nationwide and regional CO2 management. We design the CCUS supply chain network by considering simultaneous selection of source plants, capture technologies, capture materials, and locations of utilization and sequestration sites for the first time. We consider real geographic locations and reliable storage estimates from the available database. Furthermore, our cost model includes the costs of capture, compression, transportation and injection for sequestration, and also revenues from CO2 utilization. The capture and compression costs are derived using advanced modeling, simulation and optimization techniques for a wide range of flue gas compositions and flow rates [2-3], which are crucial to incorporate stationary sources of different types in a large CCUS network. We apply our model to determine the CCUS supply chain network with minimum net expenditure for a given CO2 reduction level.
Our model selects the optimal nationwide CCUS supply chain network from 3317 stationary sources, 491 saline formations, 1837 unmineable coal areas, and 161 utilization locations (oil and gas reservoirs). We also allow four leading capture technologies (absorption, membrane, pressure swing adsorption (PSA) and vacuum swing adsorption (VSA)), and 9 top materials (2 solvents, 4 zeolites [4-5], and 3 membranes) to choose from for CO2 capture. Results suggest that it is possible to capture 50% of the current CO2 emissions from the stationary sources in the United States at a cost less than $30 for each ton of CO2. Results for the CCUS in South Central United States, and Texas are also favorable. We demonstrate that it is crucial to consider both material and technology selections as integral parts of a large-scale CCUS network design.
. DOE/NETL. Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada, 2012.
. Hasan, M. M. F.; Baliban, R. C.; Elia, J. A.; Floudas, C. A. modeling, simulation, and optimization of postcombustion CO2 capture for variable feed concentration and flow rate. 1. Chemical absorption and membrane processes. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2012a, 51, 15642-15664.
. Hasan, M. M. F.; Baliban, R. C.; Elia, J. A.; Floudas, C. A. modeling, simulation, and optimization of postcombustion CO2 capture for variable feed concentration and flow rate. 2. Pressure swing adsorption and vacuum swing adsorption processes. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2012b, 51,15665-15682.
. Hasan, M. M. F.; First, E. L.; Floudas, C. A. Cost-effective CO2 capture based on in silico screening of zeolites and process optimization. Submitted for publication, 2013.
. U.S. Provisional Patent Application #61/761,436 and #61/765,284.