286760 Membrane Engineering for Zero Liquid Discharge in Seawater Desalination
Membrane engineering for zero liquid discharge in seawater desalination
E. Drioli1, 2, 3, F. Macedonio1, 2, A. Ali2
1 National Research Council - Institute on Membrane Technology (ITM–CNR), Via Pietro BUCCI, c/o The University of Calabria, cubo 17C, 87036 Rende CS, Italy
2 The University of Calabria - Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials, cubo 44A, Via Pietro BUCCI, 87036 Rende CS, Italy
3 Hanyang University, WCU Energy Engineering Department, Room 917 9th Floor FTC Bldg., 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 S. Korea
The reliability on seawater for industrial, drinking and household purposes has enormously increased in many parts of the world. Traditionally, pressure driven membrane based processes have been employed for seawater desalination. However, the pressure driven processes have some associated drawbacks that need to be addressed, operation at high pressure and the disposal of brine being major hurdles that adversely affect the process economy and cause environmental concerns. The use of new membrane based operation can't only resolve the problem of waste handling but also possesses the potential to boost the overall economy of the process. Membrane distillation (MD) is one of the advanced membrane based processes that can utilize waste grade energy including the solar and geothermal energy and can greatly enhance the recovery of the process. MD can be used to produce ultrapure water and can also be employed to recover the valuable crystals of different salts from the brine. However, MD is not fully mature process yet and requires further attention to understand the process and to improve its efficiency. Preparation of membranes specifically designed for MD applications, thermal polarization and coupling of flux with concentration at high feed concentration require special focus to utilize the potential of MD in more efficient way.