286741 Novel Materials for Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS)

Monday, October 29, 2012: 3:15 PM
306 (Convention Center )
Ah-Hyung Alissa Park, Earth and Environmental Engineering & Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY

Historically, the atmospheric concentration of CO2 fluctuated naturally on the timescales of ice ages.  Concerns, however, stem from the recent dramatic increase in CO2 concentration, which coincides with global industrial development. This rise is mainly due to the high use of fossil fuels.  In order to meet the ever-increasing global energy demands while stabilizing the CO2 level in the atmosphere, it is widely believed that current carbon emissions must be reduced by at least a factor of three.  The containment of CO2 involves three operations: separation, transportation, and storage.  Until now, these technologies have been developed independent of one another, which has resulted in complex and economically challenging large-scale designs.  The future direction of carbon management technologies now focuses on the integration of CO2 capture and storage schemes as well as CO2 utilization.   In this seminar, two novel carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies will be introduced.  CO2 capture fluids based on the Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials (NOHMs) are currently developed and their absorption isotherms are characterized as a function of CO2 partial pressure and temperature (i.e., combustion and gasification conditions).  NOHMs are a new class of organic-inorganic hybrids that consist of a hard nanoparticle core functionalized with a molecular organic (sometimes polymeric) corona that possesses high degree of tunability.  NOHMs are non-volatile and stable over a very wide temperature range, which make them interesting materials for various energy and environmental applications.  Once captured, CO2 needs to be stored for permanent disposal.  The geological storage of carbon dioxide has been considered to be the most economical method of carbon sequestration, while mineral carbonation is a relatively new and less explored method of sequestering CO2.  The advantage of carbon mineral sequestration is that it is the most permanent and safe method of carbon storage, since the gaseous CO2 is fixed into a solid matrix of Mg-bearing minerals (e.g., serpentine) forming a thermodynamically stable solid product.  These carbon sequestration technologies can be integrated into the existing or new energy conversion systems in order to achieve their overall sustainability.

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