284376 A Framework for Chemical Risk Management in Product Manufacturing and Its Application to Industrial Cleaning
For sustainable manufacturing, voluntary efforts are needed in industry to manage risks on human health and the environment associated with the use of chemicals. In this study, a practical framework for chemical risk management in product manufacturing based on simultaneous evaluation of functional, economic, and risk aspects is proposed. The framework is embodied through the case study of industrial cleaning processes, where open-top processes with chemical substances such as chlorinated organic solvents, inorganic compounds, and surfactants, are used.
Process and operation design aimed at risk reductions needs two major activities: evaluation of current and alternative processes, and decision-making on the selection of alternatives. Knowledge and tools, such as technical information, risk evaluation method, and process model, are necessary in order to evaluate risks of processes, as well as their functional and economic aspects. Technical information is systematically organized for cleaning processes, where processes have been designed on the basis of heuristics conventionally. Product defects associated with the careless process modifications aimed at risk reductions can be avoided by evaluating function of alternative processes simultaneously on the basis of the technical information. Risk analysis methods using LCA and risk assessment are applied to the evaluation in order to analyse risk trade-off relationships among alternative processes. A model of open-top cleaning processes is developed to estimate process data needed for evaluating alternative processes.
It is necessary to manage conflicts among evaluated functional, economic, and risk aspects in the decision-making phase. Engineers need to select appropriate alternatives for risk reductions, so that the improved process can achieve not only risk reduction targets but also functional requirements and economic viability. The proposed framework including concrete procedure of such multi-objective decision making is developed through the study on actual cases of process improvement in industrial cleaning. It is revealed that the flexibility assessment of constraints on product quality can be effective in managing conflicts between functional and risk aspects. Furthermore, the engagement of up- and downstream manufacturers in product supply chain can contribute to expanding the range of options of risk reduction measures.
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