283959 Strategic Model with Transmission Network Design for the Energy Supply Chain Optimization in Petroleum Industries
Nowadays, energy management has become an increasingly important issue in each consumption sector (commercial, industrial, residential and transportation sectors). It is basically because energy plays an important role in every human activity and the need for more environment friendly energy resources (less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions) like biomass, sun and wind power, etc has increased. In the particular case of oil and gas supply chain (production, transformation and transportation), the consumption of energy is estimated to approximately 10 % of gross oil and gas production (IPIECA 2007). About 90 % (48 % natural gas and 42 % oil) of the primary energy used by this industry takes the form of oil and gas, as supplies are available on site and are typically the cheapest source of energy. Some of the oil and gas used directly by the industry is transformed into electricity and heat, especially in the case of oil refineries and other large facilities. In total, about 10 % of the electricity and heat consumed by the industry is supplied from the grid (IPIECA 2007).
In this work, a strategic model for the energy supply chain design and optimization in oil industries is developed. The model considers GHG emissions, renewable energy sources energy efficiency, generation based on Gas, electricity purchase in a highly dependable market of the hydropower (64%), reliability and security constraints in the electric energy supply. The model was applied for the energy planning in an oil field production facility (GEC) at ECOPETROL. This facility include: Apiay field (4 active production fields and 48 oil wells), Castilla field (3 active fields and 126 oil wells), Chichimene field (2 active fields and 56 oil wells), Libertad field (3 active fields and 5 oil wells), Suria field (9 active field and 44 oil wells).
Due to an increased in oil production at GEC, an expansion plan in the energy supply system at GEC should be consider, this expansion plan include energy generation, transmission, distribution and final users. In the current situation at GEC, most of the energy requirements are provided by self-generation with two thermal plants (TermoOcoa (47 Mw) and TermoSuria (47 Mw)). The remaining of the energy requirements is purchased from an external energy supply system SIN (Interconnected National System) at 115 kV. The energy transmission take place at 115 kV with two distribution systems 115/34,5 kV – CDC and CDS. The distribution system for oil fields, facilities and oil Wells is at 34,5 kV.
The analysis is performed for a planning horizon of 5 -10 years, in the analyzed scenarios has an estimated growth of the demand from 120 Mw in 2012 to almost 220Mw in 2015, this huge growth is driven by an intensive campaign of development of all areas at GEC, which is estimated to grow from a production of 147 BOPD in 2012 to more than 300 kbopd in the next years, with an associated production of water slightly above from 400 kbwpd. For the energy supply the combining of different sources was analyzed: SIN and Self-generation (gas, oil, deasphalted, and other renewable alternative sources), in order to ensure energy supply required with an adequate reliability of the system so timely and cost-competitive, thus ensuring the expected volumes.
 IPIECA. 2007. “The global oil and gas industry association for environmental and social issues.” (http://www.ipieca.org/sites/default/files/publications/Saving_Energy.pdf).