279407 Optimization of Water Storage and Distribution Systems for Cities
Optimization of Water Storage and Distribution Systems for Cities
Fabricio Nápoles-Rivera,1 Medardo Serna-González1, Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi,2,3 José María Ponce-Ortega1
(1) Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Mich., 58060, México.
(2) Chemical Engineering Department, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA
(3) Adjunct Faculty at the Chemical and Materials Engineering Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Water scarcity in several regions of the world, along with the continuous increase in the water demands in the cities due to population growth, is currently one of the major concerns for the governments. In consequence, developing strategies for the appropriate use of water resources has become of paramount interest. One of the main concerns consists in the depletion of water resources. Thus, options such as the use of desalinated seawater and the collection of precipitation in storage tanks, artificial ponds and aquifers, which in the past were considered unpractical and expensive are now being considered as attractive alternatives for common use and replenishment of water bodies. An additional concern is the appropriate distribution for domestic and agricultural use, which commonly is based solely in immediate demands, and not in projected demands. This causes water droughts and the reduction in water supply in some cases. Therefore, it is important to establish systematic procedures for the appropriate planning and distribution of the available resources. In this regard, this paper presents a mathematical programming approach for the optimal water distribution planning in a macroscopic water system. The problem is based on the representation presented in Figure 1. The proposed approach considers natural bodies as water sources and the possibility of installing storage tanks and artificial ponds for the collection of precipitation in a given location. The main sinks are domestic and agricultural users for which an optimal water distribution schedule can be devised satisfying demand constraints. A case study from the city of Morelia in México is solved to prove the applicability of the proposed approach; the results show the potential advantages of using a systematic procedure for the water distribution planning in a city considering alternative water sources.
Figure 1. Schematic model representation.