266672 IC Engine Performance and Emissions Operating On Landfill Gas and Synthesis Gas

Thursday, November 1, 2012: 9:10 AM
322 (Convention Center )
Marcella Lusardi, Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, Sparta, NJ

In the United States, the decomposition of MSW in landfills emits a total of 7.2 billion m3 of methane a year. As CH4 is over 20 times as potent a greenhouse gas as CO2, capturing and exploiting its energy content has been a point of interest for several decades. The CH4 emitted from landfills is mixed with an equal volume on average of CO2. The presence of CO2 detracts from using this landfill gas (LFG) as a fuel, as it decreases engine performance and increases pollutant emissions. Through dry reformation of LFG over a Rh/Al2O3 catalyst, synthesis gas (H2/CO, SG) can be made in situ. A 5% addition of SG to LFG has been shown to reduce NOx, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) emissions by 40, 70, and 80 percent, respectively, and increase engine efficiency by 7 percent. NOx, CO, and UHC emissions data and thermal efficiencies from combustion in a Honda GC 160E-QHA engine will be presented as a function of synthesis gas percentage (<5% to maximum SG capacity) in 50/50 v.% CH4/CO2 LFG; equivalence ratio; and power load (0.2 to 2 kW). Other gases such as H2S are often found in trace amounts in LFG. SOx emissions due to the introduction of trace H2S (<0.5% by v.) to the simulated LFG will also be presented.

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