The drivers are moving from steam, gas, and electrical, and some combination of these. There are challenges of using plate-fins heat exchangers, and the spiral wound exchangers. These are some of the challenges we are facing in the natural gas liquefaction plants. These are matched with the development of cascade, mixed refrigerant, expander cycles and various hybrids of them.
There are new development of how to save energy across the LNG value chain by using cryogenic liquid expanders, larger LNG storage tanks, and bigger LNG ships, using alternate propulsions. We are also moving to floating LNG plants and the GBS and floating LNG receiving terminal concepts. Furthermore, there are Energy Bridge, and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, etc. This paper addresses the above development of LNG technology for the transportation and utilization of natural gas in the 21st century.