Conducting FTS reactions in supercritical fluid (SCF) media has been demonstrated to have certain advantages over the traditional routes because of the unique characteristics of the supercritical phase (combination of liquid-like heat capacity and solubility for optimum temperature distribution and in situ extraction of heavy hydrocarbons from the catalyst pores and gas-like diffusivity for higher conversion). The pioneer study in this field was conducted by Karu Fujimoto and his team at the University of Tokyo (published in a short communication in Fuel volume 68, 1989). Series of studies then followed led by Bala Subramanian team at the University of Kansas, Drago Bukur team at Texas A&M, Burt Davis at the University of Kentucky, and Christopher Roberts team at Auburn University. The aforementioned studies concluded several advantages of operating FTS in SCF media versus operation in conventional media due to the followings: (1) in-situ extraction of heavy hydrocarbons from the catalyst pores resulting from high solubility in the supercritical phase, (2) elimination of interphase transport limitations thus promoting reaction pathways toward the desired products, (3) enhancement of á-olefins desorption that promote the chain growth process prior to secondary reactions, and (4) excellent heat transfer compared to gas-phase reaction that results in more long chain products. Most of these studies have been funded by governmental agencies and a few of them funded by industry. Nevertheless, the implementation of SCF in FTS has not yet moved beyond the lab-scale reactors. The scale-up of SCF-FTS to a pilot plant is still a challenge because product yield and selectivity of a large scale reactor requires a deep understanding of phase behavior of reaction mixture, reaction kinetics, and catalytic system and its FTS chemistry. In this communication an overview of studies conducted in this field will be summarized. Methods to overcome the challenges facing upgrading SCF-FTS reactors to a pilot scale will be discussed. In addition a design of a high-pressure fixed-bed reactor setup that facilitates FTS operation under near-critical and supercritical solvent condition will be described. The design of the reactor considers utilizing the high pressure operation under SCF-FTS in separation of hydrocarbon products from supercritical solvent as well as in hydrocarbon fractionation.