- 2:15 PM

Calculation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Mike Bradford1, Lan Cheah2, and Bill Keesom1. (1) Jacobs Consultancy, 5995 Rogerdale Road, Houston, TX 77072, (2) Environmental, Jacobs Consultancy, 5995 Rogerdale Road, Houston, TX 77072

The paper will summarize the major international and U.S. protocols that govern the calculation and reporting of GHG emissions. The emphasis will be on the emissions from industrial sources. Calculation procedures and example calculations will be provided for major chemical plant and refinery processes. Procedures and calculations will also be provided for support facilities such as: combustion operations, cogeneration (all four accepted methodologies), electric power purchases, and wastewater treatment. Procedures and examples will be provided for both direct and indirect emissions.

As a minimum the calculation methodologies in the following protocols will be discussed. Information will be provided on the web sites where these protocols can be found.

• International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (2006)

• The Greenhouse Gas Protocol: A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard (WBCSD)

• WRI/WBCSD Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative, Sector Specific Calculation Tools

• U.S. Department of Energy, Technical Guidelines: Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases (1605(b)) Program (2006).

• IPIECA, International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association, “Petroleum Industry Guidelines for Reporting Greenhouse Gas Emissions”.

• Kyoto Principle CDM Guidelines

• API Compendium of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Methodologies for the Oil and Gas Industries

• The Climate Registry, Draft General Reporting Protocol for the Voluntary Reporting Program (October 29, 2007)

• California Climate Action Registry, General Reporting Protocol (2007)

• The USEPA Climate Leaders reporting requirements for member organizations

• Greenhouse Gas Emissions Monitoring and Reporting by the Aluminum Industry (IAI)

Information will be provided on what compounds are greenhouse gases and the “Global Warming Potential (GWP) of each compound. Different GHG compounds have a different impact on global warming, for instance one metric ton of methane has 21 times the impact as a tone of CO2. The paper will present the GWP for each of the compounds.

The calculation of GHG emissions is different for operating facilities than it is to estimate the impact of projects, especially GHG reduction projects:

• The calculations for operating facilities are typically based on actual operating data, with assumptions only for “de minimis” emissions.

• The calculations for proposed projects or proposed changes are based on two assumptions: what will be the conditions at the time in the future when the changes are made, and what will be the impact of the changes. An example of this is predicting the impact of a change in power purchases. The impact on power purchases is based on the difference between what emissions would have been in the absence of the project, and what they will be because of the change. The GHG emissions that are generated by the incremental power producer on the grid should be used.

Information will be provided on some of the protocols for reporting emissions that are associated with the calculation of the emissions, and influence how the emissions are calculated. Related protocols include:

• How to establish the base year for reporting

• How to address uncertainty in base year emissions

• How to account for organizational boundaries in the case of a complex organization, in accordance with the organization's accounting/reporting principles.

• How to account for an organizations share in a joint venture – equity share versus operational control.

• How and when to adjust the base year's data. How to correct for changes in the number of operating units in the facility, or t o changes in ownership

• Approaches to “normalizing” GHG emissions versus some measure of production such as production rates, feed rates, etc.

The co-authors have significant experience with the evaluation of industrial energy efficiency, the calculation of GHG emissions (for entire facilities or the incremental impact of specific projects), and with options to control GHG emissions. Real life examples will be presented.

The co-authors have presented papers at other AICHE meetings. Some of these presentations have been subsequently published in CEP, Energy Progress, and Environmental Progress.