We have found that Tat-QDs are internalized by an endocytosis process triggered by Tat-QD binding to negatively charged cell membranes. The internalized Tat-QDs are tethered to the inner vesicle surfaces and are trapped in cytoplasmic organelles. The QD loaded vesicles are actively transported by motor proteins along cytoskeleton tracks and end up being accumulated at a perinuclear region. We also find that Tat-QDs strongly bind to cellular membrane structures such as filopodia and that large QD-containing vesicles are released from the tips of filopodia by vesicle shedding. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of Tat peptide-mediated delivery as well as toward the design of functionalized nanoparticles for molecular imaging and targeted therapy.